Posted by: drazizul | October 19, 2010

Biogas: New way to the Green Energy for Developing Nation

What is Biogas?

Biogas is a combustible mixture of gases produced by micro-organisms when livestock manure and other biological wastes are allowed to ferment in the absence of air in closed containers .

Major components of Biogas:

The major constituents of biogas are methane (CH4, 60 percent or more by volume) and carbon dioxide (CO2, about 35 percent); but small amounts of water vapor, hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen (N2) are also present.

Uses of Biogas:

1. Biogas is mainly used as fuel, like natural gas, while the digested mixture of liquids and solids ‘bio-slurry’ and ‘bio-sludge’ are mainly used as organic fertilizer for crops.
2.Biogas methane can also be used as fuel for vehicles, and is the cleanest biofuel available. Cars run on biogas methane have been voted environmental cars of the year in 2005.  Thousands of them are already operating in Sweden, which has hundreds of filling stations supplied by community biogas digesters (Organic Waste-Powered Cars).
3. Biogas can be used in ovens and lamps to heat greenhouses and at the same time increase the carbon dioxide concentration to boost photosynthesis in the greenhouse plants and increase yields. Experiments in Shanxi Province have shown that increasing carbon dioxide four-fold between 6 and 8 am boosts yields by 67.2 percent .
4. Similarly, a biogas lamp gives both light and warmth to silkworm eggs increasing their rate of hatching as well as cocooning over the usual coal heating .
5. Biogas methane can also be used to make methanol, an organic solvent and important chemical for producing formaldehyde, chloromethane, organic glass, and compound fibre .
6. Finally, biogas can be used to prolong storage of fruit and grain . An atmosphere of methane and carbon dioxide inhibits metabolism, thereby reducing the formation of ethylene in fruits and grains. It also kills harmful insects, mould, and bacteria that cause diseases.

Typical Biogas plant for developing countries

In developing countries the Biogas plant could be implemented for generating the gas as a household green energy source. It will also solve the problem of organic waste management. The final product of the Biogas can be the source of organic fertilizer.


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